Even though the expectant mother did not have diabetes before pregnancy, there may be an increase in blood glucose levels during pregnancy. This is a development that will indicate gestational diabetes in the expectant mother. This problem can be detected during screenings with the sugar loading test, also known as the sugar water test, performed at 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.
How is gestational diabetes determined?
Glucose loading test should be applied to expectant mothers between 24 and 28 weeks. During the test, the expectant mother is first given 50 grams of glucose. After an hour, the glucose level in the blood is checked. When the glucose level is below 140 mg/dl during the determination of this rate, it is determined that the expectant mother does not have gestational diabetes. However, if the glucose in the blood exceeds this value, the test must be repeated with 100 g of glucose for 3 hours. After the 3-hour loading, it is precisely determined whether the expectant mother has gestational diabetes or not. After the sugar loading test, the expectant mother should not engage in excessive physical activity and should not eat anything during this period. These are important for the sugar loading test to give accurate results.
What are the risks of gestational diabetes for the expectant mother and the baby?
The presence of diabetes before pregnancy or its emergence during pregnancy poses some risks for the expectant mother and the baby. The more regular blood sugar levels are ensured in pregnant women with diabetes, the risks that may arise due to diabetes are reduced. The risks of diabetes occurring during pregnancy are less than those of diabetes occurring before pregnancy. However, this must be determined and treated with a sugar loading test in pregnant women. Otherwise, problems such as pregnancy poisoning, high blood pressure, premature birth, and miscarriage are more likely to occur in expectant mothers than in pregnant women without diabetes. Babies of women who had diabetes before pregnancy may have some anomalies. However, diabetes that begins during pregnancy does not cause such a problem. However, in both types of diabetes, the baby may be born overweight, that is, macrosomic baby development may occur. In this case, since the expectant mothers will be given birth by cesarean section, they may experience some risks. When the blood sugar levels of expectant mothers are controlled during pregnancy, the risks that may occur will decrease proportionally. Therefore, monitoring HbA1C and glucose levels in expectant mothers is extremely important.
What are the possible risks to the baby of an expectant mother with diabetes?
After birth, the baby may experience respiratory distress due to underdeveloped lungs.
The baby is macrosomic (large)
The baby is smaller than it should be
Risks of hypoglycemia, i.e. low blood sugar, hypocalcemia, polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, i.e. jaundice, in the baby after birth
Development of heart diseases in advanced stages
Having kidney anomalies
Anomalies in the brain and central nervous system
Anomalies in the digestive system
What are the symptoms of diabetes during pregnancy?
If the expectant mother has diabetes, she may experience symptoms such as feeling thirsty, losing weight, having a desire to eat excessive amounts of food, increasing the amount of urination, and feeling constantly tired and weak. However, some pregnant women do not have these symptoms. That’s why a sugar loading test needs to be done.
How is gestational diabetes treated?
In case of gestational diabetes, expectant mothers are not given oral diabetes medications like normal diabetics. Instead, treatment methods such as diet and exercise practices and insulin administration are preferred. The expectant mother is nourished with a diet program appropriate to her pregnancy status, prepared together by the doctor and the dietician. This nutrition list does not include chocolate, ice cream, desserts prepared with sherbet, or foods made from white flour. During this diet, the expectant mother doing the exercises recommended by the doctor will also be effective in regulating blood sugar levels. These exercises should be chosen from sports such as walking and swimming. In expectant mothers for whom these practices are not beneficial, diabetes is controlled by giving insulin.
Risky pregnancy or high risk pregnancy; These are pregnancies that have an additional disease before or during pregnancy, or where there is a risk of miscarriage or a risk of disability in the baby in the scans.
In cases where normal vaginal birth cannot be performed, the method used is cesarean delivery. In cases where normal birth is considered, a caesarean section can be performed urgently, or a caesarean section decision can be made by prenatal planning. If it is determined that a cesarean section will be performed before birth, the date and time of the procedure can be determined.
Caesarean section is a birth technique performed under operating room conditions and anesthesia. In this procedure, the baby is removed from the mother’s womb by making an incision first in the abdomen and then in the uterus. Then, the incisions are closed with stitches and the birth is completed.
Aginal discharge is the fluid secreted from small glands in the vagina and cervix. This fluid leaks from the vagina every day to flush out old cells and debris, keeping the vagina and reproductive system clean and healthy. Vaginal discharge may occur from normal changes in estrogen levels
In uterine prolapse, the muscle around the vagina, connective tissues, and the nerve that holds the pelvic organs and tissues in place, break as the muscle tissues weaken and prolapse occurs outside the vagina. It occurs due to reasons such as normal birth, insufficient estrogen, and old age.
Sexually transmitted diseases that can be treated are: Syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. The 4 most common sexually transmitted diseases are; hepatitis B, herpes simplex, HIV (AIDS) and HPV cannot be fully treated