Miscarriage is among the most common problems in pregnant women. Although it varies from country to country, it is possible to say that on average one or two out of every ten pregnant women experience miscarriage. The number of factors that lead to this situation, which can be defined as the termination of pregnancy earlier than expected, is quite high. Since pregnancy is a problem that occurs even before reaching the maturity stage, it can sometimes be difficult for expectant mothers to understand that they have miscarried. However, there are some symptoms that can be watched to understand a miscarriage.
What is miscarriage?
Before talking about the causes and symptoms of miscarriage, it is necessary to answer the question of what miscarriage is. As stated before, miscarriage is defined as the early termination of pregnancy. Pregnancies that end unexpectedly, usually before 20 to 24 weeks, are called miscarriages. Abnormal chromosomal structure of the baby is considered the main cause of miscarriage. Normal miscarriage occurs once, and then it is possible for couples to have children again, provided that the necessary tests are taken. Normal miscarriages constitute the most common class of miscarriage problems. Three or more miscarriages in a row are called recurrent miscarriages. Recurrent miscarriages occur in only one in every hundred mothers. There is no other problem under normal miscarriages. However, recurrent miscarriages may be a sign of a different underlying problem. Therefore, expectant mothers who have recurrent miscarriages should be examined in detail by a gynecologist. Expectant mothers who experience recurrent miscarriages after various examinations and treatments have a 75 percent chance of having a child. This means that three out of every four mothers can have children. Late miscarriage can also be mentioned as another form of miscarriage. These miscarriages that occur after the twenty-fourth week of pregnancy are called this way. The incidence of late miscarriages remains at one percent.
Miscarriage doesn’t always happen the same way. In order to fully answer the question of what miscarriage is, it is necessary to know the types of miscarriage. Miscarriage types can be listed as follows:
Low Threat Level: Bleeding up to the twentieth week of pregnancy brings to mind the threat of miscarriage. Here, a miscarriage has not occurred yet, but the possibility of miscarriage is taken into consideration. Even if other checks other than bleeding are normal, the threat of miscarriage cannot be ignored. In this case, the doctor may give progesterone supplements, prohibit sexual intercourse, and limit some activities.
Inevitable Miscarriage: Situations in which the cervix is fully dilated are referred to as inevitable miscarriage. In the inevitable miscarriage, the miscarriage has not yet occurred. However, in this case, miscarriage is inevitable.
Incomplete Miscarriage or Half Miscarriage: In this type of miscarriage, the product of pregnancy is not completely eliminated from the body. Half of it is expelled, and the other half remains in the uterus. In this case, the expectant mother may experience intense pain and bleeding. Pregnancy ends when the remaining parts of the uterus are cleaned.
Death in the Womb: In this case, a true miscarriage does not occur. However, the death of the embryo and fetus occurred. No bleeding is observed. Death in the womb can be easily diagnosed during an examination by a specialist gynecologist. In this case, the uterus is cleaned with a small operation.
What Causes Miscarriage?
Another question that is as important as the question of what miscarriage is is why miscarriage occurs. The most common cause of miscarriage is chromosomal disorders in the child. This condition alone is the cause of 50 percent of miscarriage cases. Failure of the fetus to develop normally may lead to the formation of missing or extra chromosomes. This condition can be seen even if the mother and father do not have any genetic disorders. The divisions experienced by the embryo during its growth process lead to the emergence of such defects. The mother’s health conditions also have an important place among the causes of miscarriage. Diabetes, infections, uterine diseases, thyroid and hormone disorders come first at this point. Improving the mother’s health conditions before pregnancy reduces the likelihood of miscarriage. Harmful habits such as smoking, alcohol and drugs also cause miscarriage. The use of such harmful substances by expectant mothers before or during pregnancy increases the possibility of miscarriage during pregnancy.
When expectant mothers experiencing miscarriage problems are considered in terms of their age, it can be said that older expectant mothers face this problem more. For women who want to become mothers, trying before the age of 35 greatly reduces the chance of miscarriage. Studies show that the probability of miscarriage in expectant mothers over the age of 40 is around 80 percent. Weight can be mentioned as another factor causing miscarriage. In women who are overweight or underweight
When expectant mothers experiencing miscarriage problems are considered in terms of their age, it can be said that older expectant mothers face this problem more. For women who want to become mothers, trying before the age of 35 greatly reduces the chance of miscarriage. Studies show that the probability of miscarriage in expectant mothers over the age of 40 is around 80 percent. Weight can be mentioned as another factor causing miscarriage. Women who are overweight or underweight also have a higher risk of miscarriage. It would be more appropriate for expectant mothers in this situation to meet with a dietitian before pregnancy and reach their ideal weight level.
What are the symptoms of miscarriage?
Since miscarriage often occurs in the first weeks before the baby’s formation is completed, it can be difficult for expectant mothers to understand. However, miscarriage can be diagnosed by following a series of symptoms. If symptoms of miscarriage occur, a gynecologist should be consulted and a detailed examination should be performed. Bleeding, especially in the first weeks of pregnancy, highlights the possibility of miscarriage. These symptoms, called miscarriage symptoms, can be listed as follows:
Vaginal bleeding or spotting
Severe abdominal pain and cramps
Nausea and vomiting
Sharp stabbing pains in the waist and back areas
Fluid and pieces of different colors coming out of the vagina
How to Treat Miscarriage?
It is not possible to talk about such a thing as direct miscarriage treatment. There is no method to prevent miscarriage. But it is possible to eliminate miscarriage by removing the factors that cause miscarriage. Since single miscarriages are considered normal, most of the time it is not necessary to attempt any treatment for them. However, it is still recommended that the mother be examined in detail by a gynecologist immediately after the miscarriage and that pregnancy be tried again after the necessary tests. In recurrent pregnancies, there is a high probability that there is a different underlying problem. In this case, the factors that cause miscarriage need to be identified and eliminated. In this way, miscarriage is also treated. The duration of this treatment may vary depending on the underlying cause of the miscarriage. Especially in cases of miscarriage due to genetic factors, constant specialist physician supervision is required to complete the pregnancy in a healthy way.