If couples cannot achieve pregnancy despite having regular and unprotected sexual intercourse for 1 year, it is recommended that they have health checks. If the expectant mother is over 35 years old, the waiting period is 6 months. In order to achieve pregnancy naturally, the female reproductive system, as well as the hormonal system and many different organs, must work together and in harmony. First of all, the hypothalamus region in the brain stimulates the pituitary gland, also located in the brain. The pituitary gland secretes the hormones LH and FSH. Hormones reaching the ovaries through the circulatory system stimulate the egg follicles in the ovarian reserve. Thus, some of the eggs enter the maturation process. When the healthiest egg hatches, the egg is thrown into the fallopian tubes, which are a kind of channel between the ovary and the uterus. The lifespan of the egg that needs to be fertilized here is about 24 hours. However, sperm, the male reproductive cell, can survive in the female body for 4-5 days. Therefore, fertilization can occur if you have sexual intercourse before ovulation or on the day of ovulation.
During this process, the follicle containing the egg secretes estrogen, causing the uterine wall to thicken. After the egg is fertilized, it comes to the uterus and pregnancy begins when the embryo attaches to the thickened uterine wall. During this entire process, different reproductive problems may occur in men or women. In this case, after the examination and tests, the couple can consider the in vitro fertilization treatment option, which is one of the assisted reproductive treatment methods. In in vitro fertilization treatment, the eggs collected from the expectant mother and the sperm cells taken from the expectant father are fertilized in a laboratory environment, and then the resulting embryo is placed in the uterus of the expectant mother using the embryo transfer method. The expectant mother’s Beta HCG level is checked with a blood test performed approximately 2 weeks later. If the test result shows that the pregnancy has been successfully achieved, the pregnancy process begins. Pregnancies achieved through in vitro fertilization treatment are no different from pregnancies achieved naturally. The pregnancy process continues normally.
How is IVF Done? What are the Required Conditions?
In vitro fertilization can be defined as the process of placing the healthiest embryo obtained as a result of fertilizing the eggs collected from the expectant mother with the sperm of the expectant father in a laboratory environment, into the uterus. Before starting in vitro fertilization treatment, the reproductive abilities of both the man and the woman are evaluated. Then, hormone therapy is started to allow the expectant mother’s eggs to begin the maturation process. Then, a cracking injection is given to ensure that the eggs come out of their follicles. During the egg collection process, the maturing eggs of the expectant mother are collected with the help of transvaginal ultrasound. Meanwhile, sperm cells are taken from the prospective father. Fertilization is achieved with reproductive cells brought together in a laboratory environment. The healthiest of the resulting embryos, or in other words, the best in vitro fertilization, is transferred to the expectant mother’s uterus under the guidance of ultrasonography. Following this procedure, the couple is sent home approximately half an hour later. In some cases, more than one embryo needs to be transferred to the mother’s uterus. In such cases, multiple pregnancy may occur. Although in vitro fertilization treatment can be applied to a person at any age before menopause, it should not be forgotten that the chance of pregnancy decreases after the age of 40. There is no upper limit on the number of applications. In in vitro fertilization treatment, women under the age of 35 must have had unprotected and regular sexual intercourse for 1 year, and people over the age of 35 must have had unprotected sexual intercourse for 6 months and have not been able to conceive. One of the frequently asked questions is “How does in vitro fertilization happen?” It is in the form
In Vitro Fertilization Stages: How Does In Vitro Fertilization Happen?
The procedures carried out by the in vitro fertilization center begin with a preliminary meeting. The physician listens to the couple’s history, then performs examination and ultrasonographic examinations to check the woman’s reproductive system. AMH test is performed to determine ovarian capacity. When necessary, uterine film known as HSG, hysteroscopy, blood count, thyroid function and serological tests can be performed. The prospective father is asked for a sperm analysis and, if necessary, a meeting with a urologist. Following the examination, tests and evaluations, the treatment method to be applied to the couple is determined. The couple is informed in detail about the IVF treatment stages. The stages of in vitro fertilization are as follows:
Stimulation of Eggs: Hormone therapy is started to allow the eggs in the expectant mother’s ovarian reserve to begin the maturation process. For this procedure, GnRH analogues are first given to the person to suppress the ovaries. Then, hMG and FSH are administered to stimulate the ovaries. Thus, the number and quality of the expectant mother’s eggs are increased. After about 8 to 10 days, the follicle size is 18 to 20 mm. When it reaches its size, HCG, that is, cracking injection, is given.
Egg Collection: 34 to 36 hours after the application of the cracking needle, the egg collection process, defined as the OPU process, begins. The procedure, which is performed using transvaginal ultrasound-guided sedation analgesia-anesthesia, takes approximately 13-30 minutes. The person does not feel pain during the OPU procedure performed in the vaginal examination position.
Collection of Sperms: The expectant father gives a sperm sample by masturbating in the sperm chamber. The sample taken is given to the laboratory. In men whose semen does not contain sperm, sperm can be obtained from the ovaries surgically.
Fertilization: In the IVF process, which is the classical in vitro fertilization method, the egg and sperm cells taken are brought together in the culture medium prepared in the laboratory and expected to be fertilized. In ICSI, or in other words microinjection technique, the sperm is injected into the egg. At the end of both methods, an embryo is formed by fertilization of the egg.
Embryo Transfer: In embryo transfer, which is the last stage of the in vitro fertilization treatment method, the previously obtained embryo is transferred to the uterus of the expectant mother. In the transfer process performed under ultrasonography guidance, without the need for anesthesia, the embryo is deposited into the uterus with the help of a catheter.
How Many Days Does In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Take?
In vitro fertilization treatment takes approximately 15 to 18 days. After this period, 10 to 12 days later, the Beta HCG level in the blood is checked to check whether pregnancy has been achieved.
In Vitro Fertilization Center: What is the Best In Vitro Fertilization Success Rate?
The main factors affecting the chance of success in in vitro fertilization treatment are the age and ovarian capacity of the expectant mother. The younger the expectant mother, the greater the chance of success with in vitro fertilization. Although the age of the expectant father is also important in the success rate, the age of the expectant mother is the determining factor. The chance of success in the first in vitro fertilization attempt between the ages of 20 and 30 is 70%. While the chance of success is 50% at the age of 30-35, it drops to 45% between the ages of 35-37. The chance of success drops to 30% in the 38-40 age range and 20% in the 40-42 age range.
Risky pregnancy or high risk pregnancy; These are pregnancies that have an additional disease before or during pregnancy, or where there is a risk of miscarriage or a risk of disability in the baby in the scans.
In cases where normal vaginal birth cannot be performed, the method used is cesarean delivery. In cases where normal birth is considered, a cesarean section can be performed urgently, or a cesarean section decision can be made by prenatal planning. If it is determined that a cesarean section will be performed before birth, the date and time of the procedure can be determined.
Caesarean section is a birth technique performed under operating room conditions and anesthesia. In this procedure, the baby is removed from the mother’s womb by making an incision first in the abdomen and then in the uterus. Then, the incisions are closed with stitches and the birth is completed.
Aginal discharge is the fluid secreted from small glands in the vagina and cervix. This fluid leaks from the vagina every day to flush out old cells and debris, keeping the vagina and reproductive system clean and healthy. Vaginal discharge may occur from normal changes in estrogen levels
In uterine prolapse, the muscle around the vagina, connective tissues, and the nerve that holds the pelvic organs and tissues in place, break as the muscle tissues weaken and prolapse occurs outside the vagina. It occurs due to reasons such as normal birth, insufficient estrogen, and old age.
Sexually transmitted diseases that can be treated are: Syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. The 4 most common sexually transmitted diseases are; hepatitis B, herpes simplex, HIV (AIDS) and HPV cannot be fully treated